Sikh Articles of Faith & Identity

What is the significance of hair (Kesh) for Sikhs?

The Kesh (unshorn hair) is regarded with the highest importance in the Sikh religion and is one of the basic requirements for a Sikh. Dishonouring one’s hair is a gross transgression and the offender Sikh is branded a patit “an apostate”. A Patit is no more a Sikh. So much so that a Sikh dyeing Kesh or beard is also declared a tankhahia, religious sinner and his offerings at Sri Akal Takhat or any other Takhat is not permitted. A Sikh doesn’t disfigure their hair from head to toe because of the Guru’s order to maintain the sanctity of the Kesh. Nothing else matters. A Sikh does what their Guru tells them to do.

ਮਾਈ ਸਤਿ ਸਤਿ ਸਤਿ ਹਰਿ ਸਤਿ ਸਤਿ ਸਤਿ ਸਾਧਾ ॥
ਬਚਨੁ ਗੁਰੂ ਜੋ ਪੂਰੈ ਕਹਿਓ ਮੈ ਛੀਕਿ ਗਾਂਠਰੀ ਬਾਧਾ ॥੧॥ ਰਹਾਉ ॥
“O mother, True, True True is the Lord, and True, True, True is the Guru.
The Word, which the Perfect Guru has spoken, I have tied to my robe. ||1||Pause||”
(Ang 1204)

Under Section 4 (Chapter X) (Article XVI) (i) of the Sikh Rahit Maryada:

Living in consonance with the Guru’s Tenets “..A Sikh should, in no way, harbour any antipathy to the hair of the head with which his child is born. He should add the suffix ‘Singh’ to the name his son. A Sikh should keep the hair of his sons and daughters intact.” (page 24)

The importance of Kesh can be gauged from the fact that a person denigrating it is even debarred from voting rights for the SGPC elections. To wit the relevant section of the Sikh Gurdwaras Act, 1925:

Section 49 of the Sikh Gurdwaras Act, 1925,

49. Qualification of electors.- Every person shall be entitled to have his name registered on the electoral roll of a constituency constituted for the election of a member or members of the Board who is a resident in that constituency and…

(ii) is a Sikh more than twenty-one years of age, who had his name registered as a voter in such manner as may be prescribed:

[Provided that no person shall be registered as an elector who-

(a) trims or shaves his beard or Keshas…
The entity and the identity of a Sikh are interdependent. Though there is no doubt that merely by sporting unshorn hair a person will not become a Sikh, but it is also true that without Kes a person cannot be a Sikh. It is thus construed that every person keeping unshorn hair does not become a Sikh, but every Sikh is and ought to be Kesdhari (one who maintains unshorn hair).
‘Sikh’ literally means a follower. The one who does not follow the tenets cannot lay claim to be called a follower or a Sikh. Says Guru Amar Das jee,

ਸੋ ਸਿਖੁ ਸਖਾ ਬੰਧਪੁ ਹੈ ਭਾਈ ਜਿ ਗੁਰ ਕੇ ਭਾਣੇ ਵਿਚਿ ਆਵੈ ||
He alone is a Sikh, a friend, a relative and a sibling, who walks in the Way of the Guru’s Will. (Guru Granth Sahib, ang 601)

The foundation stone for keeping unshorn hair was laid by the first Guru itself. Guru Nanak categorically stated that it is essential for a person to keep unshorn hair as this is a blessing from God and doing away with it is a breach of trust and misappropriation. In fact, a Sikh by doing away with his kes breaks his relationship with Guru Nanak. The following are quotes from Makke di Gosht -Guru Nanak Sahib’s conversation with Muslim sages, which were held during his sojourn to Mecca.

The life of a follower has to flow in a system. This system is known as rahit maryada. Maryada is a word derived from Sanskrit root word marya, which means the two banks of a river. If the water flows within the embankments then it is river and serves humankind. However, if it spills over or breaches its embankments, then it is floods and causes havoc. Similarly, the life of a Sikh has to flow and operate within the parameters of Maryada and the Maryada has to be the Sikh Rahit Maryada. Says Guru Nanak Dev, the founder of the Sikh faith that,

ਨਾ ਮਰਜਾਦੁ ਆਇਆ ਕਲਿ ਭੀਤਰਿ ਬਾਹੁੜਿ ਜਾਸੀ ਨਾਗਾ ||
“You came into this Dark Age of Kali Yuga naked, and you shall depart again naked if you fail to lead your life in maryada.”
(Guru Granth Sahib, ang 74)

Every religion has its rules and regulations. It is imperative for a religious person to honour the sentiments, feelings and codes of every other religion. Guru Gobind Singh was asked by the royal peer, sage of emperor Bahadur Shah: “Which of the two religions is better, yours or mine” Guru ji’s reply was, “tum ko tumahara khoob, hum ko hamara khoob – for you, yours is wonderful and for me, mine is fine.” Hence it is abundantly clear that Sikh Rahit Maryada or Sikh Code of Conduct is to regulate the life, deeds, do’s and dont’s for a Sikh only. It does not interfere with any other religion or religious group and will not invite any intrusion by any one else.

Kesh and the Keski (turban) that covers it are divine gifts from Creator Lord received through the Guru. Discarding these primary ‘articles of faith’ by a Sikh is a willful act of contempt against the will of God and Guru.

Didaar, guftaar and kirdaar -appearance, conversation and the inner character, are the three parameters to judge and assess a person. The later two stages come in if the person does not falter at the first stage itself.

The Sikh Rahit Maryada is a well codified text containing the do’s and don’ts for a Sikh. Contrary to common belief, the Sikh Rahit Maryada is not created by Shiromani Gurdwara Prabandhak Committee or SGPC. SGPC is its mere publisher and acted as a facilitator for its codification. In 1931, the SGPC, under the convenership of Professor Teja Singh, an authority on Sikhism, constituted a Sikh Rahu Reet Sub Committee. The Committee consisted of Jatehdars of all the Takhats, the Head Granthi of Sri Darbar Sahib, Amritsar (Golden Temple) and well recognized and respected Sikh scholars and prominent Sikhs of various seminaries and institutions who had made unparalleled contributions in the field of religion and service to the Panth. The draft Sikh Rahit Maryada prepared by this committee was widely circulated all over the world and views and suggestions were invited and considered. Finally, in 1945, the present form of the Sikh Rahit Maryada was approved and published. It is, thus, the collective wisdom of the entire Sikh Panth and contains the Sikh rules and regulations applicable on each and every Sikh.

It will be interesting to note that following are the primary sources of this Sikh Rahit Maryada:

  • Guru Granth Sahib

  • Banee (religious text) of Guru Gobind Singh

  • Writings of Bhai Gurdas and Bhai Nand Lal

  • Rahit Namas

  • Guru Granth Sahib is the embodiment of the Ten Gurus but contains banee of six Guru Sahibs. Guru Gobind Singh’s banee is contained separately in Dasven Patshah ka Granth or Dasam Granth. Bhai Gurdas I was a contemporary of Guru Arjan Dev ji. Bhai Gurdas II was a contemporary of Guru Gobind Singh ji. Bhai Nand Lal, the renowned Persian scholar who served the Mughal Durbar, had left the Emperor’s service and came to stay at Anandpur Sahib, the camp headquarters of Guru Gobind Singh. Guru Gobind Singh valued his writings and gave recognition by giving the title to his works too.

    The special status of the writings of Bhai Gurdas I and II and Bhai Nand Lal can be ascertained from the fact that in Harimandir Sahib or any Gurdwara, besides Gurbanee, the hymns and compositions of these two scholars may be sung and recited. Bhai Nand Lal was dictated The Sikh Code of Conduct, known as Tankhahnama, was dictated by Guru Gobind Singh to Bhai Nand Lal and is an important source of the Sikh Rahit Maryada.

    The significance and reverence shown to the Kes is evident from the fact that Guru Gobind Singh named the Takhat which is the birth place of the Khalsa as Takhat Kesgarh Sahib, which means “the blessed fort of unshorn hair.”

    The foundation stone for keeping unshorn hair was laid by the first Guru itself. Guru Nanak categorically stated that it is essential for a person to keep unshorn hair as this is a blessing from God and doing away with it is a breach of trust and misappropriation. In fact, a Sikh by doing away with his kes breaks his relationship with Guru Nanak. The following are quotes from Makke di Gosht -Guru Nanak Sahib’s conversation with Muslim sages, which were held during his sojourn to Mecca.

    ਜਵਾਬ ਨਾਨਕ ਸ਼ਾਹ ਸੂਰਾ:
    ਸਚੀ ਸੁਨਿਤ ਰਬ ਦੀ ਮੋਇਆ ਲੈ ਆਇਆ ਨਾਲ[
    ਜੋ ਰਖੇ ਮੋਇ ਅਮਾਨਤੀ ਖਾਸਾ ਬੰਦਾ ਭਾਲਿ[
    ਅਵਲ ਸੁੰਨਤ ਮੋਇ ਹੈ ਸਿਰ ਪਰ ਰਖੇ ਕੋਇ[
    ਪਾਵੇ ਮਰਾਤਬਾ ਸਯਦੀ ਬਡਾ ਰਿਖੀਸਰ ਹੋਇ[
    (ਮੱਕੇ ਮਦੀਨੇ ਦੀ ਗੋਸ਼ਟਿ, ਪੰਨਾ ੧੪੪. ਪੰਜਾਬੀ ਯੂਨਿਵਰਸਿਟੀ)
    Courageous Lord Nanak replied:
    The true divine sunnat (injunction) is the hair brought by birth.
    Blessed is the one who keeps the hair as a trust of God.
    The primary sunnat is hair and the one who adorns it on his head acquires the status of a rishi (sage) or a sayyid (Muslim holy man)
    (Conversation of Mecca-Madina, page 144, Punjabi University)

    ਮੋਇ ਸਿਰਪਾਉ ਖੁਦਾਇਦਾ ਲੈ ਆਇਆ ਬੰਦਾ ਨਾਲ[
    ਨਾਨਕ ਆਖੇ ਪੀਰ ਜੀ ਫਿਰ ਲੈ ਜਾਇ ਨਾਲ[
    ਫਿਰ ਗਇਆ ਦਰਗਹ ਵਿਚਿ ਅਕੇ ਰਖਿ ਨੀਸਾਨ[
    ਸਾਬਤ ਸੂਰਤਿ ਰਬ ਦੀ ਭੰਨਨ ਬੇਈਮਾਨ[
    (ਮੱਕੇ ਮਦੀਨੇ ਦੀ ਗੋਸ਼ਟਿ, ਪੰਨਾ ੧੪੪. ਪੰਜਾਬੀ ਯੂਨਿਵਰਸਿਟੀ)
    Says Nanak, the hair is the blessing of the Lord to man which ought to be presented back. The man has to present himself in the court of Lord with this trust. The one who could not keep the hair intact has is in fact committed breach of trust and is to be regarded as faithless. (Conversation of Mecca-Madina, page 144, Punjabi University)

    ਆਖੀ ਨਾਨਕ ਸਾਹ ਸਚੁ ਸੁਣਹੁ ਬਹਾਵਦੀ ਪੀਰ[
    ਹਿੰਦੂ ਮੁਸਲਮਾਨ ਦੁਇ ਸਿਰ ਗੁੰਮ ਥੀਏ ਜਹੀਰਿ[
    (ਮੱਕੇ ਮਦੀਨੇ ਦੀ ਗੋਸ਼ਟਿ, ਪੰਨਾ ੧੩੮. ਪੰਜਾਬੀ ਯੂਨਿਵਰਸਿਟੀ)
    Says Nanak to Pir Bahavdeen, both Hindus and Muslims by losing the hair in fact have lost head and have become sirgum.
    (Conversation of Mecca-Madina, page 138, Punjabi University)

    Thereafter all other Guru Sahibs and bhagats whose banee was included in Sri Guru Granth Sahib also made mention about long hair and beard. To wit,
    ਸੋਹਣੇ ਨਕ ਜਿਨ ਲੰਮੜੇ ਵਾਲਾ ||
    Your nose is so graceful, and your hair is so long.
    (Guru Granth Sahib, ang 567)

    ਹਰਿ ਹਰਿ ਨਾਮੁ ਦ੍ਰਿੜਾਇਓ ਗੁਰਿ ਮੀਠਾ ਗੁਰ ਪਗ ਝਾਰਹ ਹਮ ਬਾਲ ||੧|| ਰਹਾਉ || (੧੩੩੫-੧)
    The Guru has implanted the Sweet Name of the Lord, Har, Har, within me. I dust the Guru’s Feet with my hair. ||1||Pause||
    (Guru Granth Sahib, ang 1335)

    ਕੇਸਾ ਕਾ ਕਰਿ ਬੀਜਨਾ ਸੰਤ ਚਉਰੁ ਢੁਲਾਵਉ ||
    I make my hair into a fan, and wave it over the Saint.
    (Guru Granth Sahib, ang 745)

    ਕੇਸਾ ਕਾ ਕਰਿ ਚਵਰੁ ਢੁਲਾਵਾ ਚਰਣ ਧੂੜਿ ਮੁਖਿ ਲਾਈ ||੧|| ਰਹਾਉ ||
    I make my hair into a fan, and wave it over them; I apply the dust of their feet to my face. ||1||Pause||
    (Guru Granth Sahib, page 749)

    ਗੁਰ ਕੇ ਚਰਨ ਕੇਸ ਸੰਗਿ ਝਾਰੇ ||੧||
    With my hair, I dust the feet of the Guru. ||1|| (Guru Granth Sahib, page 387)

    ਕੇਸ ਸੰਗਿ ਦਾਸ ਪਗ ਝਾਰਉ ਇਹੈ ਮਨੋਰਥ ਮੋਰ ||੧||
    With my hair, I dust the feet of your slave; this is my life’s purpose. ||1|| (Guru Granth Sahib, page 500)

    ਨਾਪਾਕ ਪਾਕੁ ਕਰਿ ਹਦੂਰਿ ਹਦੀਸਾ ਸਾਬਤ ਸੂਰਤਿ ਦਸਤਾਰ ਸਿਰਾ ||੧੨||
    Purify what is impure, and let the Lord’s presence be your religious tradition. Let your total awareness be the turban on your head. ||12|| (Guru Granth Sahib, page 1084)

    ਦਿਵਸ ਰੈਨਿ ਤੇਰੇ ਪਾਉ ਪਲੋਸਉ ਕੇਸ ਚਵਰ ਕਰਿ ਫੇਰੀ ||੧|| (੯੬੯-੧੯, ਰਾਮਕਲੀ, ਭਗਤ ਕਬੀਰ ਜੀ)
    Day and night, I press Your feet, Lord; I wave my hair as the chanwar (ceremonial fan). (Guru Granth Sahib, page 969)

    ਸੇ ਦਾੜੀਆਂ ਸਚੀਆ ਜਿ ਗੁਰ ਚਰਨੀ ਲਗੰਨਿ੍ਹ || (੧੪੧੯-੧੨, ਸਲੋਕ ਵਾਰਾਂ ਤੇ ਵਧੀਕ, ਮਃ ੩)
    Those beards are true, which brush the feet of the True Guru. (Guru Granth Sahib, page 1419)

    The references are not only restricted to hair on the head – Guru Amar Das ji, the third Guru, even speaks of the unshorn beard. Then there is the order of Guru Gobind Singh,

    The biological functions and benefits of human body hair are for example:

    * The hair on our head protects the skull and brain
    * The hair on our body acts an insulator and is linked to our nervous system
    * Our eyebrows prevent water going into your eyes
    * Facial hair absorb ether energy
    * The hair under our armpits prevent friction and irritation when we move our arms

    There is a principle (vidhaan) of maintaining Kesh.
    ਸੋਹਣੇ ਨਕ ਜਿਨ ਲੰਮੜੇ ਵਾਲਾ ॥
    “Beautiful is Your nose and long hair.”
    (Ang 567)

    Meaning, those who have beautiful nose and beautiful Kesh, they too are your nose and Kesh. Thus, a Sikh should keep full appearance (i.e. maintain unshorn hair and not pierce the nose), crowned with a turban on the head.
    ਮਾਠਿ ਗੁੰਦਾਈਂ ਪਟੀਆ ਭਰੀਐ ਮਾਗ ਸੰਧੂਰੇ ॥ ਅਗੈ ਗਈ ਨ ਮੰਨੀਆ ਮਰਉ ਵਿਸੂਰਿ ਵਿਸੂਰੇ ॥
    “I have woven my hair into lovely braids, plaits, and marked the centre parting with red colouring (Sandhoor); but in the presence of You, I am still not accepted, and (because of this) I am dying suffering in anguish.”
    (Ang 558)

    Meaning, braids, plaits, making partings with the hair and adding colour to the hair etc is prohibited for the Sikh of the Guru. Such people do not get accepted the Court of the Lord.

    Any form of intended disfigurement or mutilation of the body is prohibited in Gurmat, including shaving, plucking, tattooing, circumcision, piercing, colouring etc. Guru Ji says:
    ਨਾਪਾਕ ਪਾਕੁ ਕਰਿ ਹਦੂਰਿ ਹਦੀਸਾ ਸਾਬਤ ਸੂਰਤਿ ਦਸਤਾਰ ਸਿਰਾ ॥ 12 ॥
    “O person of God! Purify the mind what is impure (with bad thoughts) “this is the religious tradition through which you can experience the Lord’s Presence. (Abandoning circumcision, mutilation and deferment of the body etc) preserve a complete appearance with a turban on your head” this becomes the way to maintain respect and honour. ||12||”
    (Ang 1084)

    There is one Salokh of Bhagat Kabeer Ji which is often misquoted by mischievous people trying to justify the un-Godly act of shaving or trimming their hair.

    ਕਬੀਰ ਪ੍ਰੀਤਿ ਇਕ ਸਿਉ ਕੀਏ ਆਨ ਦੁਬਿਧਾ ਜਾਇ ॥ ਭਾਵੈ ਲਾਂਬੇ ਕੇਸ ਕਰੁ ਭਾਵੈ ਘਰਰਿ ਮੁਡਾਇ ॥੨੫॥
    “O Kabeer! When you are in love with the One Lord, duality and alienation depart. You may have long matted hair, or you may shave your head bald. ||25||”
    (Ang 1365)

    These lines criticize both those who have long matted hair or shave their head completely in order to achieve union with God. In these lines, the question of keeping or not keeping Kesh is not the case. Similarly Guru Ji says:

    ਕਬੀਰ ਮਨੁ ਮੂੰਡਿਆ ਨਹੀ ਕੇਸ ਮੁੰਡਾਏ ਕਾਂਇ ॥ ਜੋ ਕਿਛੁ ਕੀਆ ਸੋ ਮਨ ਕੀਆ ਮੂੰਡਾ ਮੂੰਡੁ ਅਜਾਂਇ ॥੧੦੧॥
    “O Kabeer! You have not shaved your mind, so why do you shave your head? Whatever is done, is done by the mind; it is useless to shave your head. ||101||”
    (Ang 1369)

    This salok (couplet) clarifies the above salok.

    As well as having biological functions and benefits, the hair is sacred due to the fact that spiritual energy abides within each and every pore of hair on the body. The hairs are like electrical wires, which preserve, carry and vibrate energy. When one chants & meditates the Divine- Name (Naam), each hair vibrates. Sikhs do not forcibly or intentionally remove any hair from the body but maintain clean hair with proper washing; tying and keeping them covered are requirements for a Sikh.

    Gurbaani (the Divine Word) says:

    ਰੋਮ ਰੋਮ ਮਹਿ ਬਸਹਿ ਮੁਰਾਰਿ ॥
    “On each and every hair, the Lord abides.”
    (Ang 344)

    ਗੁਰਮੁਖਿ ਰੋਮਿ ਰੋਮਿ ਹਰਿ ਧਿਆਵੈ ॥
    “The Gurmukh meditates on the Lord with every hair of his body.”
    (Ang 941)


    ਜਬ ਪਹਿਲੇ ਸਬ ਸਿ੍ਰਸਿਟ ਉਪਾਈ । ਤਬ ਹੀ ਮਾਨੁਖ ਦੇਹਿ ਬਨਾਈ ।
    ਤਨ ਇਸ ਕੇ ਸਿਰ ਕੇਸ ਜੁ ਦੀਨੋ । ਸੋ ਇਹ ਤਨ ਸ਼ਿੰਗਾਰਿਹ ਕੀਨੋ ।
    ਦਾੜ੍ਹਾ ਮੁੱਛ ਸਿਰ ਕੇਸ ਬਨਾਈ । ਹੈ ਇਹ ਦਿ੍ੜ ਜਿਹ ਪ੍ਰਭੂ ਰਜ਼ਾਈ ।
    ਮੇਟ ਰਜ਼ਾਇ ਜੁ ਸੀਸ ਮੁੰਡਾਵੈ । ਕਹੁ ਤੇ ਜਗ ਕੈਸੇ ਹਰਿ ਪਾਵੈ ।
    “God created the whole universe and then he fashioned the human body. He gave man a beard, moustaches and hair on the head. He who submits to His Will steadfastly adheres to them. They who deny His Will how will they find God in this world?”
    (Bhai Desa Singh Rehatnama)

    ਗੁਰ ਕੀ ਛਾਪ ਸਿਰ ਕੇਸ ਕੀ ਪਾਹੁਲ, ਦੇਇ ਉਤਾਰ ਸੋ ਬੇਮੁਖ ਜਾਨਹੁ।
    ਬੇਟੇ ਕੋ ਬੰਧੁ ਕੋ ਛਾਪ ਮੁੰਡਾਵਤ, ਜਮ ਦੁਖ ਭੋਗ ਕੇ ਪ੍ਰੇਤ ਪਛਾਨਹੁ।
    “The Guru’s stamp is Kesh and (Khandi di) Pahul, one who removes (their Kesh) is known as an apostate (bemukh). One who shaves the stamp (of the Guru) of their child (i.e. cut their children’s hair), realise that person will suffer a terrible death and known as a ghost.”
    (Bhai Sahib Singh Rehatnama)

    ਸਾਬਤ ਸੂਰਤ ਰੱਬ ਦੀ, ਭੰਨੇ ਬੇਈਮਾਨ । ਦਰਗਹਿ ਢੋਈ ਨਾ ਮਿਲੇ, ਕਾਫ਼ਰ, ਕੁੱਤਾ, ਸ਼ੈਤਾਨ ।
    “God has made the human perfect, but the dishonourable destroy it.
    They will find no place in the Court of God, like the unbeliever, dog and Satanist.”
    (Guru Nanak Janam Sakhi)

    ਨਾਈ ਦਾ ਹਥ ਸੀਸ ਚਿਹਰੇ ਨ ਲਗਣਾ ਪਾਵੈ । ਕੇਸਾਧਾਰੀ ਗੁਰੂ ਦਾ ਪੰਥ ਕਹਾਵੈ ।
    “The head (of a Sikh) should never have to pass through the hands of a barber. The Guru’s Panth (community) calls itself Keshdhari (those with unshorn hair).”
    (Bansaavaleenama, Bhai Kesar Singh Chhibar)

    ਇਹੈ ਮੋਰ ਆਗਯਾ ਸੁਨੋ ਲੈ ਪਿਆਰੇ ।
    ਬਿਨਾ ਤੇਗ, ਕੇਸੰ ਦਿਵੋ ਨ ਦਿਦਾਰੇ ।
    “Listen O beloved ones: It (the Kesh) is my stamp. Without (wearing) a weapon and keeping Kesh, I will not give my audience.”
    (Gurbilaas Paatshaahee 10 – Bhai Sukha Singh)

    ਕੇਸਨ ਕੀ ਕੀਜਹੁ ਪ੍ਰਤਿਪਾਲ । ਨ ਉਸਤਰਨ ਸੇ ਕਟਯੋ ਬਾਲ ।੧੮।
    “Maintain and look after your Kesh. Do not remove or cut any hair.”
    (Gur Panth Prakaash – Rattan Singh Bhangu)

    —– NAILS & HAIR —–

    Someone could argue why do Sikhs cut their nails when they don’t cut their hair. Firstly, nails and the importance of hair cannot be compared. The hair is sacred that have a spiritual importance whereas the nails merely have biological function. Secondly, nails naturally remain short as they are brittle and rigid as a result of which they break off easily. A Sikh is required to do seva (selfless service) with his or her hands. When a individual uses their hands to do selfless service of washing up dirty dishes, cleaning shoes, sweeping the floor, cooking and serving food then there is no possibility for nails to remain long.


    A Sikh lives in the grace and glory of God. The Kesh are magnificent. Biologically, physically and spiritually they do so much for us. Looking at the Kesh of a Sikh one sees the Sikh principle of “Living in the Will (Bhaanaa) of the Almighty.” The Kesh is a symbol of Sikhism and what the fundamental belief of Sikhs. Bhai Taru Singh jee is a Shaheed (martyr) who is a living reminder of what the Kesh means to the Khalsa. When asked to give up his faith and denounce Sikhi, he preferred to have his scalp removed than cut and disfigure his Sacred Kesh.