Why do some Sikhs believe ‘Keski’ as the Kakkaar and not ‘Kesh’.

According to the Panthic Sikh Rehit Maryada, published by the SGPC:

ਪੰਜਾਂ ਕੱਕਿਆਂ – ਕੇਸ, ਕ੍ਰਿਪਾਨ, ਕਛਹਿਰਾ, ਕੰਘਾ, ਕੜਾ ਨੂੰ ਹਰ ਵੇਲੇ ਅੰਗ-ਸੰਗ ਰੱਖਣਾ |

The five K’s should be worn on the body at all times –
I. Kesh (unshorn hair),
II. Kirpan {sheathed sword} (The length of the sword to be worn is not prescribed.,
III. Kachhehra (The Kachhehra (drawers like garment) may be made from any cloth, but its legs should not reach down to below the shins.),
IV. Kanga (comb),
V. Karha {steel bracelet} (The Karha should be of pure iron.)

According to the Budha Dal Nihang Singhs, the Keski is a mandatory requirement both for men and women. Although they do not label it as one of the Five Ks, the order to keep it on the body at all times, including bathing, gives it the same importance as a Kakkaar. Even now, women in Nihang Dals adorn a turban.

According to the present day Damdami Taksaal Maryada, Keski is not considered a Kakkaar, however a Keski should be worn for the protection of the hair and a larger turban should be tied over the Keski. Wearing a Keski is not enforced on women but it is favoured as it helps to keep the sanctity of the Kesh. During the time of Sant Gurbachan Singh Ji Bhindranwale, women who took Amrit adorned a Keski (turban) to cover their Kesh, however the Jatha after the death of Sant Gurbachan Singh became less stricter in asking women to wear a Keski when taking Amrit. Sant Gurbachan Singh Ji’s own wife and daughters adorned a Keski. However, Sant Jarnail Singh Ji’s wife did not wish to wear a Keski, however Sant Ji was in a favour that women should adorn the Keski. The ‘Gurmat Rehat Maryada’ written by Sant Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale states:

Page 17 of the translated copy of Gurmat Rehat Maryada written by Sant Giani Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale, published by Damdami Taksaal

Some Sikhs and Panthic groups, in particular the Akhand Kirtani Jatha, believe Keski is Kakkaar, not Kesh. Those Gursikhs who argue Keski is Kakkaar, argue the following:

  1. All the other Kakkaars are physical items and external uniform, whereas everyone is born with Kesh and Kesh cannot be “worn” as a uniform.
  2. A Sikh is prohibited from dishonouring the Kesh as one of the four cardinal taboos, and therefore, to say Kesh is Kakkar is repeating the same message.
  3. A Keski has to be worn to protect and respect the Kesh.
  4. If Keski is not considered as the Panj Kakkaar then in theory the Sikh turban is not protected in legal rights and it can be argued that a Sikh can just have their Kesh but no turban to cover it.
  5. There are historical sources that explicity say that Keski is the Kakkaar, not Kesh.

WHAT IS KESKI?
Keski/ Kesgi/ Chhoti Dastaar: According to Mahan Kosh, Keski is: ਛੋਟੀ ਪੱਗ ਜੋ ਕਿ ਕੇਸਾਂ ਦੀ ਰਿਖਆ ਲਈ ਪਿਹਰੀ ਜਾਂਦੀ ਹੈ।. In other words, Keski is small turban (chhottee dastaar) that is kept on at all times and is worn underneath the larger turban. A Keski is usually half the length of a full turban. It can be from 2 to 3 metres of cotton material (A keski should have at least 3 wraps around the head).

The Dastaar is a mark of visual identity, which conveys royalty, grace and uniqueness. The Dastaar represents complete commitment. Practising Sikh men and women both are instructed to wear the Dastaar. It is a spiritual crown reminding a Sikh that he or she sits on the throne of consciousness, committed to higher principles.

Practically, it keeps the hair clean, contained and stabilizes the main larger turban (usually worn by men). In addition to this, the Keski or Dastaar is worn to protect the head and show respect to the ‘Dasam Dwaar’ (spiritual energy gate on top of the head, where one experiences the Divine within). One Gursikh described the Keski as the following:

“We meet Waheguru via our Dasam Dwaar. Our Dasam Dwaar is located on top of our head. We do all different types of sewa (service) to please Waheguru, yet we must remember to do the sewa of adorning our Dasam Dwaar because it is here where we meet Waheguru. Keski (turban) is the seva of Dasam Duaar.”

The Keski (short turban) is kept on the head at all times, even when sleeping. During having a shower or drying one’s hair, the Keski can be wrapped around the waist.

HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE

A 19th century painting of a Sikh man and his wife by a British artist in Punjab (India).

A 19th century painting of a Sikh family by a British artist in Punjab (India).

Historically both Sikh men and women wore at least the short turban (Keski). Although history notoriously excludes facts about women, there are historical references to not only to Mata Bhag Kaur, but also Mata Sahib Kaur (‘mother of the Khalsa’ and wife of Guru Gobind Singh ji), Rani Sahib Kaur (Queen of Patiala, 18th Century), Rani Raj Kaur (18th century) and many other Sikh women wearing turbans.  Not until 1945 when the SGPC formulated and codified the Rehat Maryada and wrote that it was optional for Sikh women to tie a turban has it become notably less common. However, this does not invalidate the original requirement or the prevalence of the practice dating back 300 years. Additionally, even the SGPC refers to the turban as a requirement for all Sikhs without exception when it is politically expedient to do so.

“Every practising Sikh is enjoined upon to have unshorn hair and have it covered by the turban. It is mandatory for every Sikh and no one has an exemption or option to this [sic] basic Sikh tenets and tradition.” — Gurcharan Singh Torah writing as President of the SGPC to the President of France

Right up to the reign of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, Sikh women had been steadfast in following the edicts of the Guru which included wearing the Dastaar. This was also witnessed by English observers in the Panjab during this time. Well known 19th Century English Historian, J. D. Cunningham (1812-1851) who was an eye witness to the First Anglo-Sikh War, in his History of the Sikhs – 1848 refers to Sikh women of that time as follows: “The Sikh women are distinguished from Hindus of their sex by some variety of dress, chiefly by a higher topknot of hair.” Higher topknot of hair on Sikh women’s heads automatically implies their coverage by some sort of turban, as Cunningham has connected it with “some variety of dress.”

Even after the Punjab came under the British rule, this article of faith of the Keski was conspicuously seen in case of Sikh women as well as men right up to the Gurdwara movement and the establishment of the Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee (SGPC) in 1926. Until then, no one – man as well as woman was allowed to be initiated (by taking Amrit) at Sri Akal Takht Sahib without a Keski. It was only afterwards that laxity was introduced in this respect and the wearing of Keski was made optional. With the introduction of this laxity, the other anti-Sikh practice of wearing piercing ornaments in the nose and ears also became prevalent in Sikh women.

Many people quote that in the Dasam Granth it is stated that “Kesh” is the Kakkaar and use this as proof to discredit the claims that Keski is the Kakkaar. They quote the following:

ਨਿਸ਼ਾਨਿ ਸਿਖੀ ਈ ਪੰਜ ਹਰਫ ਕਾਫ | ਹਰਗਿਜ਼ ਨ ਬਾਸ਼ਦ ਈਂ ਪੰਜ ਮੁਆਫ਼ |
ਕੜਾ ਕਾਰਦੋ ਕ੍ਨਛ ਕੰਘਾ ਬਿਦਾਂ | ਬਿਲਾ ਕੇਸ ਹੇਚ ‘ਅਸਤ ਜੁਮਲਾ ਨਿਸ਼ਾਂ’ |
“The recognition of Sikhi is encapsulated in five; symbols bearing words beginning with the alphabet ‘K’. Their absence renders one the necessity to seek forgiveness. The Kara, Kard, Kach, Kangha together are incumbent, yet without the Kesh, they are all in vain.”

Panthic scholar, late Piara Singh Padam editor of the book “Rehitnamey” (pages 35-36) states:

ਉ੍ਨਨੀਵੀਂ ਸਦੀ ਦੇ ਸ਼ੁਰੂ ਵਿਚ ਕਿਸੇ ਫ਼ਾਰਸੀਦਾਨ ਨੇ ਦੋ ਸ਼ੇਅਰਾਂ ਵਿਚ ਇਹ ਨਸੀਅਤ ਕਮਲਬੰਦ ਕੀਤੀ ਸੀ:

ਉ੍ਨਨੀਵੀਂ ਸਦੀ ਦੇ ਸ਼ੁਰੂ ਵਿਚ ਕਿਸੇ ਫ਼ਾਰਸੀਦਾਨ ਨੇ ਦੋ ਸ਼ੇਅਰਾਂ ਵਿਚ ਇਹ ਨਸੀਅਤ ਕਮਲਬੰਦ ਕੀਤੀ ਸੀ:
ਨਿਸ਼ਾਨਿ ਸਿਖੀ ਈ ਪੰਜ ਹਰਫ ਕਾਫ | ਹਰਗਿਜ਼ ਨ ਬਾਸ਼ਦ ਈਂ ਪੰਜ ਮੁਆਫ਼ |
ਕੜਾ ਕਾਰਦੋ ਕ੍ਨਛ ਕੰਘਾ ਬਿਦਾਂ | ਬਿਲਾ ਕੇਸ ਹੇਚ ‘ਅਸਤ ਜੁਮਲਾ ਨਿਸ਼ਾਂ’ |

ਭਾਈ ਜੋਧ ਸਿੰਘ ਜੀ ਨੇ ‘ਗੁਰਮਤਿ ਨਿਰਣਯ ‘ (੧੯੩੨) ਵਿਚ ਲਿਖਿਆ ਹੈ ਕਿ ਇਹ ਮਹਾਰਾਜ ਜੀਂਦ ਪਾਸ ਪਈ ਦਸਮ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਦੀ ਬੀੜ ਵਿਚ ਦਰਜ ਹੈ ਪਰ ਗਲ ਇਹ ਨਹੀਂ| ਨਾ ਇਹ ਇਸ ਬੀੜ ਵਿਚ ਲਿਖਿਆ ਸੀ ਤੇ ਨਾ ਹੀ ਦਸਮ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਦੀ ਕਿਸੇ ਹੋਰ ਪੋਥੀ ਵਿਚ| ਜੈਸਾ ਕਿ ਮੈਨੂੰ ਸੁਰਗਵਾਸੀ ਗਿਆਨੀ ਪ੍ਰਾਕ੍ਰਮ ਸਿੰਘ ਜੀ ਸੰਗਰੂਰ ਵਾਲਿਆ ਦਸਿਆ ਸੀ ਕਿ ਇਹ ਇਕ ਕਾਗ਼ਜ਼ ਦੇ ਟੁਕੜੇ ’ਤੇ ਲਿਖਿਆ ਸ਼ੇਅਰ ਸੀ ਜੋ ਕਿ ਇਸ ਦਸਮ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਵਿਚ ਹਦ ਦੇ ਤੌਰ ਤੇ ਰਖਿਆ ਹੋਇਆ ਸੀ| ਪਿਛੋਂ ਇਹ ਕਿਧਰੇ ਡਿਗ ਪਿਆਜਾਂ ਕਿਸੇ ਕਢ ਲਿਆ|

“A 19th century Persian poet wrote a couplet in which writes:

nishaani sikhee ee panj haraf kaaf | hargiz na baashad ee panj muaaf |
karraa kaardo kachh kanghaa bidaa(n) | bilaa kes hech ‘asath jumlaa nishaa(n)’ |

Bhai Jodh Singh Ji writes in ‘Gurmat Nirnay’ (1932) that this was included in a manuscript of the Dasam Granth whilst Maharaaj (Guru Gobind Singh Ji) was physically alive, but this is false. Neither was it written in this manuscript nor in any pothi (scripture) of Dasam Granth. As I was told by the late Giani Prakram Singh Ji from Sangrur that this writing was a couplet written on a piece of paper which was placed inside the cover of Dasam Granth. Afterwards, it either fell out or someone took it out.”

IN WHICH TEXTS OR REHATNAMAS IS KESKI MENTIONED?

The historical text of ‘Guru Kian Sakhian’ contains the stories from the lives of the Gurus, and was written by Bhatt Sarup Singh Kaushish, of Bhadson, in Parganah Thanesar. As recorded by the author, the manuscript was completed in 1790 at Bhadson itself. The original manuscript was written in Bhattachchhari, a script used by the Bhatts or family bards for recording genealogical details concerning their clients. It was later transliterated into Gurmukhi script by Bhatt Chhajju Singh Kaushish in 1869. The work has since been published (1986) in book form.

The manuscript contains a total of 112 Sakhis (testimonies of historical accounts) connected with the lives of five of the Gurus from Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji to Guru Gobind Singh Ji. The first Guru to have Bhatts in attendance was Guru Arjan Dev Ji. A few of them became devout Sikhs. They revealed holy hymns in praise of Guru Arjan Dev Ji and his predecessors which are preserved in Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji.  They and their descendants took part in Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji’s battles against the Mughal forces. They put down in their ‘Vehis’ (genealogical records) some of the events connected with the lives of the Gurus.

The entries in the Bhatt Vahis are thus historically very important. The Guru Kian Sakhian is based upon these Bhatt entries. But the description of historical events in the Guru Kian Sakhian is different in style from accounts in the Vahis.  Entries in the latter mainly confine themselves to giving details with regard to the ancestry, gotra, clan, etc., of the persons concerned and mentioning the year, month, day and sometimes even the exact time of a particular happening. The description of the episode itself is sketchy and brief. The Guru Kian Sakhian is, on the contrary, narrative in character. The Guru Kian Sakhian discovered recently by Giani Garja Singh, brings to light some new facts, especially in relation to the lives of Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji and Guru Gobind Singh Ji. Likewise, it provides crucial evidence on certain historical points.

Regarding Keski, not Kes, being the Kakkaar, Guru Kian Sakhian gives an account of the 1699 Amrit Sanchaar:

ਤੁਮ੍ਹੇ ਪਾਹੁਲ ਦੇਨੇ ਸੇ ਪਹਿਲੇ- ਹਮੇਂ ਪਾਂਚ ਕਕਾਰ ਦੀਏ ਹੈਂ- ਇਨ੍ਹੇ ਭੁਲ ਕੇ ਬਦਨ ਸੇ ਜੁਦਾ ਨਹੀਂ ਕਰਨਾ ॥ ਪ੍ਰਿਥਮੇ ਤੁਸਾਂ ਕੋ ਨੀਲੀ ਰਾਂਗ ਕੀ ਕੇਸਕੀ, ਕੰਘਾ, ਕ੍ਰਿਪਾਨ, ਸਰਬ ਲੋਹ ਕਾ ਕੜਾ ਤੇ ਸਫੈਦ ਰੰਗ ਕਾ ਕਛਿਹਰਾ ਦੀਆ ਹੈ ॥ ਇਨ ਮੇਂ ਏਕ ਭੀ ਜੁਦਾ ਹੋਇ ਜਾਇ, ਗੁਰਦਵਾਰੇ ਜਾਇ ਸੰਗਤ ਮੇਂ ਬਖਸ਼ਾਨਾ, ਢਿਲ ਨਹੀਂ ਪਾਨਾ ॥
“Before giving you Amrit, I (Guru Gobind Singh Ji) gave you five Kakkaars, which you never separate from your body. First to be given you is the blue-coloured Keski, Kangha, Kirpan, pure iron Karha, and white-colour Kachhera. If any one of these gets separated (from you), then seek forgiveness for that from the Sangat in the Gurdwara, and in doing this there should be no delay.”
(Guru Kian Sakhiaan, authored by Swaroop Singh Kanishk (1790ce), p. 123)

Describing Baba Banda Singh Bahadar receiving Amrit from the hands of the Panj Pyaare, Guru Kian Sakhian account describes the Panj Kakkaar being bestowed upon Baba Banda Singh Bahadar:

“ਸਤਿਗੁਰਾਂ ਅਪਨੇ ਦਸਤ ਮੁਬਾਰਕ ਸੇ ਕੰਘਾ, ਕਰਦ, ਕੜਾ ਤੇ ਕੱਛਾ ਪਹਿਨਾਏ ॥ ਸਿਰ ਤੇ ਛੋਟੀ ਦਸਤਾਰ-ਕੇਸਕੀ ਸਜਾ ਬੈਰਾਗੀ ਸੇ ਸਿੰਘ ਰੂਪ ਮੈਂ ਲੈ ਆਂਦਾ ॥…”
“With his blessed hands Satguru dressed the Khalsa with a Kangha, Kard (Kirpaan), Karha and Kachhera. On the head a small Dastaar – Keski – was adorned and in this way the Bairaagi (Maadho Daas) was given the identity of a Singh.
(Guru Kian Sakhian, p. 199, compiled by Swaroop Singh Kaushish (1790ce), edited by Prof Piara Singh Padam (1986))

Guru Gobind Singh is quoted by hazoori Sikh scholar Bhai Chaupa Singh (who also served as a guardian of the four sons — Sahibabad’s — of Guru Gobind Singh:

ਕੱਛ, ਕੜਾ, ਕਿ੍ਰਪਾਨ, ਕੰਘਾ, ਕੇਸਕੀ, ਇਹ ਪੰਜ ਕਕਾਰ ਰਹਿਤ ਧਰੇ ਸਿਖ ਸੋਇ ॥
“Kachhera, Karha, Kirpan, Kangha, Keski – Whoever keeps the discipline of wearing these 5Ks will be known as my Sikh.”
(Bhai Chaupa Singh Rehatnama)

The term keski has in modern times been separated into Kes Ki which changes its meaning from Keski — turban — to Kes Ki- of the kesh (hair). Many scholars have pointed out that this change is a misreading of the original intent and have innumerable references to support the term keski rather than kesh.

Bhai Daya Singh was one of the first five Sikhs to take Amrit from Guru Gobind Singh. He was the author of a rehatnama which he based on a conversation between himself and Guru Gobind Singh. He describes what he was told when he asked Guru Sahib about the requirements of the Khalsa:

ਪਹਿਲੇ ਕਛ ਪਹਰਾਨੀ, ਕੇਸ਼ ਇਕੱਠੇ ਕਰ ਜੂੜਾ, ਦਸਤਾਰ ਸਜਾਵਨੀ, ਗਾਤ੍ਰੇ ਸ੍ਰੀ ਸਾਹਬ ਹਾਥ ਜੋੜਿ ਖੜਾ ਰਹੈ ।
First ensure that each candidate for the Khalsa wears the kacchera, ties the hair in a topknot and covers the same with a dastaar, wears a kirpan in a shoulder strap and stands (in humility) with folded hands.” (Bhai Daya Singh Rehatnama, p. 68)

It is important to note that the term Khalsa is always gender neutral.

Bhai Daya Singh also specifically wrote:

ਜੂੜਾ ਸੀਸ ਕੇ ਮੱਧ ਭਾਗ ਮੈਂ ਕਰੇ, ਇਸਤ੍ਰੀਓ ਕਾ ਜੂੜਾ ਲੰਬਾ ਨਾ ਕਰਾਵੈ ।
Women should tie their hair in a hairbun and should not keep it loose. (Bhai Daya Singh Rehatnama, p. 73)

Bhai Sahib Singh was another of the first five Sikhs to Amrit from Guru Gobind Singh Ji. He was the author of a rehatnama which he based on a conversation between himself and Guru Gobind Singh Ji. He mentions that the Keski is mandatory and the ‘seal’ of being a Sikh:

ਗੁਰ ਕੀ ਛਾਪ ਸਿਰ ਕੇਸਕੀ, ਪਾਹੁਲ ਦੇਇ ਉਤਾਰ, ਸੋ ਬੇਮੁਖ ਜਾਨਹੁ ॥  ਬੇਟੇ ਕੇ ਬੰਧੁ ਕੋ ਛਾਪ ਮੁਡਾਵਤ, ਜਮ ਦੁਖ ਭੋਗ ਕੇ ਪ੍ਰੇਤ ਪਛਾਨਹੁ ॥
“The Guru’s seal is Keski (turban); one who has taken Pahul (Amrit) and removes this, is known as a ‘Bemukh’. One who removes the hair of their child – they will suffer at the time of death and should be recognised as ghosts.” (Mukatnama: Bhai Sahib Singh – p. 144)

Bhai Kavi Santokh Singh Ji in his Gur Partaap Suraj Granth clearly mentions that Guru Gobind Singh Ji himself tied the Keski on Mata Bhaag Kaur Ji’s head. In addition to this, there are numerous Rehatnamas which instruct a Sikh must wear a turban:

ਜੋ ਪਗ ਨੂੰ ਬਾਸੀ ਰਖੇ ਸੋ ਤਨਖਾਹੀਆ। ਇਸ ਲਈ ਹਰ ਗੁਰੂ ਕੇ ਸਿੱਖ ਲਈ ਲਾਜ਼ਮੀ ਹੈ ਕਿ ਉਹ ਰੋਜ਼ ਦਸਤਾਰ ਸਜਾਵੇ।
“One who does not tie a fresh turban is liable for penalty. For this reason it is mandatory for every Sikh of the Guru to tie a turban everyday.”
(Rehitnama Bhai Chaupa Singh)

ਜੂੜਾ ਸੀਸ ਕੇ ਮੱਧ ਭਾਗ ਮੇਂ ਰਾਖੈ, ਔਰ ਪਾਗ ਬੜੀ ਬਾਂਧੇ ।
“Tie your hair-knot on the top of your head, and tie a turban.”
(Bhai Desa Singh Rehatnama)

੩੫. ਦਸਤਾਰ ਬਿਨਾਂ ਨਹੀਂ ਰਿਹਣਾ, ਕੇਸ ਨੰਗੇ ਨਹੀਂ ਰੱਖਣੇ ॥
“Do not stay without a turban, do not keep your hair uncovered.”
(Guru Gobind Singh Ji – 52 Hukams of the Tenth Master recorded by Baba Ram Koher Ji at Hazoor Sahib)

There is a preponderance of evidence to support the requirement of the Dastaar for all Sikhs, certainly for Amritdhari Sikhs, and only the modern Rehat Maryada published by the SGPC holding a contrary position. However, the authority on Sikhi is in Gurbani and what has can direct from the mouth of the Guru, not from a committee.

The misinterpretation of the five K’s as Kesh rather than Keski and the SGPC formulation of a Rehat Maryada and its requirements for Amritdhari Sikhs may be subjects of scholarly discussion. However, invalidating the long and rich history of turban wearing women with the belief that only in recent history women have donned the turban is misguided.

The dastaar is no longer mandatory to Sikh women according to the SGPC, but according to some writers from Guru Gobind Singh ji’s time, it was not optional.

The Sikh loss of Sikh identity amongst Sikh women without turban has emerged as a consequence of societal pressure to conform and lack of understanding of Sikh traditions and history. There is something deeply at work on the psychology and status of women and it plays out as an ongoing battle over the image of women in society.

Currently part of that battle is pitting the western ideology that head coverings are submissive and collusive with oppression against rebellious liberalism where anything goes and the bolder the better. The result is that there is an absence of civil forums to discuss modesty in the public sphere and there is precious little room left to recognize rationality in Eastern practices.

Furthermore, there is almost no understanding of the possibility that one can maintain a critical mind and also find strength in the quiet surrender to the powerful God within us. Sikhi’s principle tenets asks all Sikhs to realize one’s divinity by wearing a turban and keeping our kesh (hair) and at the same time recognize that it is our choice to avail ourselves of that opportunity.

IS IT ANTI-PANTHIC TO BELIEVE KESKI AS KAKKAAR?
By believing Keski (turban) is the Kakkaar, it doesn’t negate Kesh or undermine the sacredness of Kesh. In fact, promoting the wearing of a Keski (turban) shows greater respect and reverence for the sacred hair and also the Dasam Duaar. If the Jatha had given the option of cutting hair and keeping Keski instead of that, then it would have violated the SGPC published Maryada but as things are, the Jatha is the strongest supporter of Kesh. Violation of cutting hair is one of the 4 Bajjar Kurehits (cardinal sins).

SUMMARY
Kesh or Keski Kakkaar: Whether you believe Kesh is Kakkaar or Keski, the most important thing is to keep both. Kes are very important in Sikhi and a Sikh must keep his/her hair. Keski is very important to cover Kes. Both are required for a Sikh (male and female). Both sides have rehatvaan Gursikhs such as Bhai Fauja Singh Ji and Baba Jarnail Singh Ji. We all should look at their jeevans and learn from their sacrifices. The importance of keski cannot be ignored as even those Panthic organizations which do not believe in it being a kakkaar accept it as a general requirement. The way forward is better understanding, awareness and education.

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